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Another View of Japan


Behind the conflict in Asia(その3)

Behind the conflict in Asia : Internet Archive から原文を引用しました。




It is doubtless true that at the present time military men are of more influence in the Japanese government than business or professional men. This is no more than natural, considering that the nation is involved in a major military conflict, and is a condition that occurs in any country in war time. It was true here in America during the World War, as it was of course in England and France.



Therefore, while I do not elect to assume the role of prophet, I believe it is safe to say that once the emergency is over, the predominant influence of military men in Japan will subside and the business and professional man again will take his customary place and exercise his customary influence.





Incidentally, it seems worthy to be remarked that the people who have been assuring us that Chiang Kai-shek is a splendid democrat, and his regime a democracy, are the self-same people who up to Chiang’s kidnapping in December, 1936, were berating him as a “Fascist” and denouncing his government as a “Fascist Dictatorship.” Only after he had bailed himself out of captivity, by joining with the Communists in their fight on Japan, did he suddenly cease to be a brutal fascist and become a benevolent democratic ruler.



No miracle was ever more miraculous than the transformation that takes place when an important non-Communist joins the Communists or accepts their programme. I might add that there is one infallible test, from the Communist standpoint, for determining whether or not a nation is democratic. If it is on the side of Soviet Russia, it is. If not, it isn’t. Nothing could be simpler.




Behind the conflict in Asia(その2)


Behind the conflict in Asia : Internet Archive 16~17ページから原文を引用しました。


All war is brutal. But there is one thing even more brutal — the willingness of public officials to sacrifice the lives of innocent civilians in order to make effective propaganda. And this, according to Mr. W. B. Courtney, writing in Collier’s of February 4, high officials of the Chiang Kai-shek regime have frequently done. I quote from Mr. Courtney’s article: 

あらゆる戦争は残酷だ。しかし、より残忍なものがある―効果的な宣伝をするために官吏が罪のない市民の生命の犠牲を厭わないこと。2月4日の Collier's 誌、W. B. Courtney氏の記事によれば、蒋介石政権の高官がそれを頻繁に行っている。 Courtney氏の記事から引用する。


After each raid on Hankow or Changsha, and similar places, the Chinese Propaganda Ministry would hand out statistics to the correspondents — 600, or 800, or whatever the number ’innocent civilians’ killed. We never suspected the innocence of the poor victims. We questioned that of the officials, whose eagerness in telling us how many civilians were killed was matched by their remissness in failing to tell those civilians how to avoid being killed.




The marksmanship of Japanese bombing pilots was perhaps often at fault; but, within my personal observation, not their intentions. Canton and Hankow, for example, were very well fortified cities, military headquarters, bristling with legitimate objectives. I have a map of Canton showing the areas in which destruction of non-military property, and deaths of civilians occurred. Each was in the near vicinity of a military objective: utility plants, a bridge, railroads.



One American hospital, within a few hundred feet of important rail yards, had a small American flag painted on a terra-cotta roof; no pilot could have discerned this from 1000 feet. On every side were buildings used by the military. Lingnan University (Canton Christian College, Rockefeller-endowed) had a Chinese anti-aircraft gun on its campus until faculty pleas secured its removal.



Japanese raids did enormous damage, caused thousands of non'combatant deaths.
But those of us who looked on knew that most of those deaths were unnecessary. They were due to negligence of authorities, who did not instruct and drill their populations in how to protect themselves.




Behind the conflict in Asia


Behind the conflict in Asia : Internet Archive  8~9ページから原文を引用しました。




Witness the “scorched earth” policy that Chiang has been pursuing for the past year, a policy which the Communists not only admit but boast is their own, and the effect of which, on the Chinese people, according to the February issue of the Living Age, has been so brutally devastating as to make one wonder whether Chiang is fighting the Japanese or his own people.

Thus, I think there can be no question that Communism had made heavy inroads in China.

蒋介石が過去1年続行してきた「焦土作戦」・・共産主義者が認めるだけでなく自慢する独自の作戦、そしてその中国国民への影響は、Living Age 2月号によると、蒋が戦っているのは、日本人かそれとも自国民なのか、疑問に思うほど容赦なく破壊し続けている。したがって、私は、共産主義が中国に大いに浸透したことは間違いないと思う。


So far as Japan was concerned this was a two-fold threat. In the first place, a Communized China meant a China dominated, if not completely controlled, by Japan’s traditional enemy, Russia, who, ever since 1905, has been biding its time for the propitious moment to seek to avenge its defeat by Japan. In the second place. Communism in China taught and fomented intense hatred of Japan. Thus, even though Russia failed to gain complete political mastery of China, through spreading Communism farther and farther it would make the Chinese people implacable enemies of Japan.




No informed and honest person now denies that the Communists employed these identical tactics in stirring up the Chinese against the British in 1925-26-27, and employed them so successfully that all China was swept by a wave of anti-British demonstrations and boycotts, culminating, finally, in the Nanking Outrage of March, 1927, in which British, American, Italian and Japanese nationals were wantonly killed by Chiang Kai-shek’s soldiers, and in which the entire foreign population of Nanking was only saved from wholesale slaughter by British and American gunboats which arrived at the most critical juncture and began shelling the city.





ライフ誌 1938年10月




LIFE - Google ブックス





The historic first rule for American safety is to let no outside power get a foothold in the Western Hemisphere. With Britain holding the sea, we have had little fear of possible European aggressors. Since 1932 the U.S. Fleet has been kept in the Pacific, watching Japan. Now the belief in British invincibility is shattered. Germany and Italy are on the march. They may become masters of Europe. They covert, we are told, the rich resources of South America. With Britain beaten in war, or standing importantly aside as it did in the rape of Czechoslovakia, Fascist fleets and legions may swarm across the Atlantic. By that time Britain would have also lost our in the pacific. Japan, grown great, might attack simultaneously with its current comrades-in-aggression.





These possibilities may seem too fantastically remote and improbable for worry to you.
But not to the Navy's No. 1, Admiral D. Leahy (above), Chief of Naval Operations, who must anticipate trouble from anywhere on the map. It is his job to deal with possibilities, not probabilities. In the defense of a nation, by the time a possibility becomes a probability it is likely to be too late to prepare to meet it. It takes four years to build a battleship.






Asia Sentinel、2015年9月2日の記事から一部を抜粋しました。


China Rewrites Southeast Asia’s WWII History for the Big Parade - Asia Sentinel


The outpouring of Chinese propaganda about its self-proclaimed victory over Japan 70 years ago has drowned the actual history of Asia during World War 2. China, well supported by western media, likes to believe that the whole of Asia was united in its opposition to Japan’s war against the US, Britain and China. Nothing could be further from the truth.



Elsewhere the Japanese at first were highly regarded, as they claimed, as liberators of Asian peoples from the yoke of western colonialism. Despite Japan’s own colonial activities in China and Korea, this had a strong appeal. Nationalists sought to further their own goals by cooperating with the Japanese, at least in the first instance.

(タイ国を除いた) 他の地域では、日本人は当初、彼らが主張したように、西洋植民地主義支配からのアジア人の解放者として高く評価されていた。中国や韓国における日本自身の植民地活動にもかかわらず、これは強い魅力を持っていた。ナショナリストは、少なくともまず第一に、日本人と協力して自分の目標を進めようとした。


In the Philippines many leading families and politicians collaborated with the Japanese even while most of the government of President Quezon went into exile in the US.



In Indonesia, nationalist leader Sukarno welcomed the Japanese and cooperated with them throughout the war, including helping them recruit Javanese labourers for work overseas – many of whom died. Japanese food requisitions caused food shortages in Java.



In Malaysia and Singapore, resistance to the Japanese was almost entirely an ethnic Chinese affair and seen as part of a wider war against Japan. Malay leaders kept a low profile. The anti-Japanese leader, Chin Peng, was decorated by the British but went on to lead the 1948-1960 Communist insurgency which was nominally nationalist but had little support from the Malay majority.



In Singapore, the young Lee Kuan Yew worked for the Japanese news agency before becoming useful to the British – two relationships still not fully understood.










もしかすると将来、より良い情報を見つけることができるかもしれませんし、それによって私の意見は変わるのかもしれませんが・・以下『真珠湾の真実 ― ルーズベルト欺瞞の日々』(454頁)から抜粋してみます。










Terry's Japanese empire.


Terry's Japanese empire, including Korea and... | Hathi Trust Digital Library




Agriculture is the national industry and it gives occupation to six or seven millions of the people. The native methods are so primitive that ere long the production will be trebled by the modern system introduced by the Japanese.




Besides teaching the Koreans methods for the development of the land on scientific lines, the Japanese have established model farms, miniature cotton and tobacco plantations; horticultural, forestry, and seedling stations, and besides stocking the country with fresh seeds and new agricultural tools, they have taught the people how to breed and care for live-stock, and have quadrupled the yearly output of Korean silk.




The Japanese Gov't is rapidly extending the peninsular highways, widening and strengthening them as they go.




Money. The old Korean system was so cumbersome that when the invading Japanese army once bought 10,000 yen worth of timber in the interior, and was obliged to pay in copper cash, it was found necessary to charter a small steamer and fill it with the old coins. [...]
The new metallic money is similar in quality and appearance to that of Japan except that the Korean national emblems (a white cock like the mythological phoenix, and a 5-petal plum blossom replacing the 16-petal chrysanthemum) appear upon them in juxtaposition to various Japanese symbols.